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Unlocking Magnesium: Your Complete Guide


This blog post focuses on Magnesium, a mineral that plays a crucial role in numerous bodily processes. Magnesium is essential for muscle function and bone health. 



As we age, our risk of magnesium deficiency increases due to several factors that impact this vital nutrient's absorption, intake, and utilization. In this blog post, we'll delve into why older adults are more prone to magnesium deficiency, the symptoms of magnesium deficiency, and the benefits of magnesium supplementation. 


Rest assured, this blog provides reliable information and does not provide medical advice! Before starting new supplements, discussing them with your trusted healthcare professional is always best. 


Importance of Magnesium


Magnesium is a powerhouse mineral that plays a critical role in numerous bodily functions, from muscle function and energy metabolism to bone health and beyond. It's one of your body's essential minerals, involved in over 300 biochemical reactions, making it indispensable for overall health and well-being. 


Magnesium helps regulate muscle and nerve function, supports cardiovascular health by maintaining a normal heartbeat, and is essential for energy production and protein synthesis. Magnesium also plays a crucial role in bone formation, blood sugar regulation, and maintaining a healthy immune system. Given its multifaceted role, ensuring an adequate magnesium intake through diet or supplementation is essential for optimal health and vitality.


Why are elders at higher risk for Magnesium deficiency? 


As we age, our bodies may not absorb Magnesium, leading to deficiency. Here's why:


  1. Gut Changes: Aging can affect how we absorb Magnesium from food.

  2. Eating Habits: Older adults may need to eat more Magnesium-rich foods.

  3. Health Conditions: Chronic conditions and medications can deplete Magnesium levels.

  4. Kidney Function: Declining kidney function can disrupt Magnesium balance.

  5. Increased Needs: Aging bodies may need more Magnesium but get less from food.

  6. Multiple Conditions: Having several health issues can worsen Magnesium deficiency


Medications That Can Cause Magnesium Deficiency


Certain medications can increase the risk of magnesium deficiency by interfering with magnesium absorption or increasing magnesium excretion from the body. Here are some common medications to be aware of:

  1. Diuretics: These medications, often used to treat high blood pressure or edema, can increase urinary magnesium excretion, leading to magnesium depletion over time.

  2. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs): PPIs, commonly prescribed for acid reflux and ulcers, may reduce magnesium absorption in the intestines, potentially contributing to magnesium deficiency with prolonged use.

  3. Antibiotics: Some antibiotics, particularly aminoglycosides, can interfere with magnesium absorption in the intestines, leading to decreased magnesium levels.

  4. Immunosuppressants: Drugs like cyclosporine, used to prevent organ rejection in transplant recipients, can impair magnesium reabsorption in the kidneys, leading to increased magnesium excretion and potential deficiency.

  5. Chemotherapy Drugs: Certain anticancer drugs, including cisplatin and others, may increase magnesium excretion and contribute to magnesium deficiency as a side effect of treatment.

  6. Corticosteroids: These medications, commonly used to reduce inflammation in conditions like asthma and arthritis, can increase urinary magnesium excretion with prolonged use, potentially leading to deficiency.


10 Signs of Magnesium Deficiency You Shouldn't Ignore


  1. Muscle Cramps and Twitches: Magnesium is like a conductor for your muscles, helping them function and relax. When you're low on Magnesium, it's like your muscles are playing out of tune, leading to cramps, spasms, twitches, and even restless leg syndrome. These symptoms can make it challenging to perform daily activities comfortably. Additionally, muscle cramps may be noticed more during exercise, as exercise increases magnesium requirements by 10-20%.

  2. Fatigue and Weakness: Magnesium produces ATP (adenosine triphosphate, a tiny energy currency in your body's cells that powers all your daily activities, like walking, thinking, and even breathing). Low magnesium levels can result in feelings of fatigue, weakness, and low energy, impacting overall productivity and well-being.

  3. Irregular Heartbeat: Magnesium regulates heart rhythm and contraction. Deficiency may lead to palpitations, arrhythmias, or other cardiovascular symptoms, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate magnesium levels for heart health.

  4. Mood Changes: Magnesium influences neurotransmitter function and can impact mood regulation. Deficiency may contribute to symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, depression, or mood swings, affecting both mental and emotional well-being.

  5. Nausea and Vomiting: Magnesium deficiency can affect gastrointestinal function, leading to nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, further exacerbating nutrient depletion and discomfort.

  6. Weak Bones: Magnesium is essential for bone health, as it helps regulate calcium levels and bone formation. Deficiency may contribute to weakened bones and an increased risk of osteoporosis, highlighting the importance of adequate magnesium intake for skeletal health.

  7. High Blood Pressure: Magnesium is crucial in regulating blood pressure. Low levels may contribute to hypertension (high blood pressure), increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications and highlighting the importance of Magnesium in maintaining heart health.

  8. Insulin Resistance: Magnesium affects insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Deficiency may contribute to insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, emphasizing the role of Magnesium in metabolic health and disease prevention.

  9. Headaches and Migraines: Some research suggests magnesium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of headaches and migraines, further underscoring the importance of maintaining adequate magnesium levels for headache management and prevention.

  10. Difficulty Sleeping: Magnesium regulates the sleep-wake cycle and the production of melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep. Deficiency may contribute to insomnia or poor sleep quality, emphasizing the importance of Magnesium in promoting restful sleep and overall well-being.


How to Test for Magnesium Deficiency and Why It's Tricky?


Most Magnesium is stored in tissues like muscles and bones rather than circulating in the bloodstream. This presents a challenge when it comes to testing, as traditional blood tests may not accurately reflect total body magnesium status.


While the most accurate method for assessing magnesium levels would involve testing tissues and bones directly, such as through tissue biopsies, this approach is invasive and not typically performed in clinical practice, leaving healthcare professionals to rely on less precise methods. 


Common Testing Methods:


Serum Magnesium Testing:

  • Serum magnesium tests—A simple blood test in the doctor's office measures the amount of Magnesium in the bloodstream. This method may not accurately reflect total body magnesium levels since only a tiny fraction of Magnesium is found in the blood. Red Blood Cell (RBC) Magnesium Testing:

  • RBC magnesium testing measures the magnesium levels inside red blood cells, providing a more accurate reflection of magnesium status. However, this method still may not capture total body magnesium stores. Magnesium Loading Test:

  • This test involves administering a dose of Magnesium and measuring the amount excreted in urine over time. While it provides insights into magnesium retention and excretion, It is not a standard test method. 


Therefore, clinical symptoms of magnesium deficiency may be more indicative of deficiency than laboratory test results.


What to Do If You Suspect Magnesium Deficiency:


Consult a Healthcare Professional:

  • Suppose you're experiencing symptoms of magnesium deficiency, such as muscle cramps, fatigue, or irregular heartbeat. In that case, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional. Discuss Testing Options:

  • Your healthcare provider can help determine the most appropriate testing method based on your symptoms, medical history, and risk factors. Consider Other Factors:

  • In addition to laboratory tests, your healthcare provider may consider other factors such as dietary intake, medication use, and underlying health conditions when assessing magnesium status.


Considering Supplementation, Choosing the Right Magnesium Supplement: Understanding Glycinate vs. Citrate


Magnesium supplements come in various forms, each with its benefits and considerations. Not all magnesium supplements are created equal. 


While Magnesium is abundant in many foods, supplementation may be necessary to meet daily requirements. 


Types of Magnesium Supplements:


Magnesium Glycinate:

  • Magnesium glycinate is a highly absorbable form of Magnesium. It generally has excellent bioavailability and minimal risk of gastrointestinal side effects like diarrhea, making it suitable for individuals with sensitive stomachs.

  • Benefits of Magnesium Glycinate:

  • Enhanced Absorption: Magnesium glycinate is readily absorbed by the body, making it a practical option for addressing magnesium deficiency.

  • Gentle on the Stomach: Unlike other forms of Magnesium that may cause digestive upset, magnesium glycinate is less likely to cause gastrointestinal side effects.

  • Calming Effect: Glycine, the amino acid chelator in magnesium glycinate, has calming properties that may help promote relaxation and improve sleep quality.


Magnesium Citrate:

  • Magnesium citrate is another commonly used form of Magnesium, in which Magnesium is bound to citric acid. This form of Magnesium is known for its laxative effect, which can relieve occasional constipation or promote bowel regularity.

  • Benefits of Magnesium Citrate:

  • Bowel Regularity: Magnesium citrate is often used as a laxative to alleviate constipation and promote bowel movements.

  • Rapid Absorption: Due to its laxative effect, the intestines quickly absorb magnesium citrate, which may result in faster relief from constipation.


Why Glycinate is Better for Deficiency Symptoms:

Magnesium glycinate may be the preferred choice When addressing symptoms of magnesium deficiency, such as muscle cramps, fatigue, and mood changes. Its superior bioavailability ensures that more Magnesium is absorbed and utilized by the body, leading to faster relief of deficiency symptoms. Additionally, the gentle nature of magnesium glycinate makes it suitable for long-term supplementation without causing gastrointestinal discomfort. There are other forms of Magnesium, but I decided to focus on the two most common. 


And, of course, considering dietary sources of Magnesium! 


Certainly! Here's a list of foods that are excellent sources of Magnesium:

  1. Leafy Greens: Spinach, kale, Swiss chard, and collard greens are rich sources of Magnesium, with spinach leading the pack.

  2. Nuts and Seeds: Almonds, cashews, peanuts, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds are all high in Magnesium.

  3. Legumes: Beans, lentils, chickpeas, and peas are good sources of Magnesium, and they provide other essential nutrients like protein and fiber.

  4. Whole Grains: Whole grains such as quinoa, brown rice, oats, and whole wheat are rich in Magnesium, making them a nutritious meal choice.

  5. Avocado: Avocado is not only delicious but also a good source of Magnesium, along with healthy fats and fiber.

  6. Dark Chocolate: Dark chocolate with high cocoa content (70% or more) is a surprisingly rich source of Magnesium, making it a tasty and nutritious treat in moderation.

  7. Bananas: Bananas are known for their potassium content and Magnesium content, making them a convenient and portable snack.

  8. Fatty Fish: Fish like salmon, mackerel, and halibut are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and provide Magnesium.

  9. Tofu: Tofu, a versatile plant-based protein, contains Magnesium and other essential nutrients.

  10. Dairy Products: Dairy products like milk, yogurt, and cheese contain Magnesium, calcium, and other essential vitamins and minerals.

I dedicate this blog to my patients; thank you for keeping me on my toes and keeping medicine fun!  


The information provided in this blog post is for educational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice. Please consult your healthcare provider for personalized guidance regarding specific medical conditions, treatments, or supplement use. Individual health needs vary, and professional medical advice is essential for addressing personal health concerns. 


References


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  2. Schwalfenberg, G. K., & Genuis, S. J. (2017). The importance of Magnesium in clinical healthcare. Scientifica2017.

  3. Supplements for Shin Splints - ePodiatrists. 

  4. Cox, I. M., Campbell, M. J., & Dowson, D. (1991). Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. The Lancet337(8744), 757-760.https://www.epodiatrists.com/supplements-shin-splints/

  5. How Can Multivitamins Help Improve Overall Health and Wellness in older people? - AtoAllinks. https://www.atoallinks.com/2023/how-can-multivitamins-help-improve-overall-health-and-wellness-in-older-people/

  6. Touyz, R. M. (2003). Role of Magnesium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Molecular aspects of medicine24(1-3), 107-136.

  7. Magnesium Supplementation | Sponsored by Pharmasave - South Muskoka Doppler. https://southmuskoka.doppleronline.ca/magnesium-supplementation-sponsored-by-pharmasave/

  8. Houston, M. (2011). The role of Magnesium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension13(11), 843-847.

  9. Magnesium for Sleep and Anxiety - Neural Balance. https://www.neuralbalance.com/blogs/parenting/how-magnesium-can-fight-anxiety-and-help-with-sleep-1

  10. Magnesium Types And Benefits - Difference In Magnesium Types – Greater Mood and Wellness. https://greatermood.com/blogs/news/exploring-the-many-faces-of-magnesium-which-type-is-best-for-you

  11. Plant-based diets significantly reduce diabetes risk • Earth.com. https://www.earth.com/news/plant-based-diets-significantly-reduce-diabetes-risk/

  12.  (2023). Study: Vitamin D is the most searched supplement by Michiganders. The Arab American News, 39(1927), 7.

  13. Float | 4 Scientifically Proven Tips for Better Sleep. https://www.keepfloating.com/blog/4-scientifically-proven-tips-for-better-sleep

  14. Magnesium Bisglycinate Vs Glycinate • Bench-Press.net. https://www.bench-press.net/magnesium-bisglycinate-vs-glycinate/

  15. What's The Best Magnesium For Sleep? Amazing Hack (2023). https://biolyceum.com/best-magnesium-for-sleep-2023/

  16. Best foods for Magnesium. https://www.asawellnesscenter.com/post/best-magnesium-foods

  17. 10 Super Foods for Healthy, and Youthful Looking Skin. https://www.stylerug.net/web-stories/10-super-foods-for-healthy-and-youthful-looking-skin/

  18. Kefir, Chia | WholeFoods Magazine. https://www.wholefoodsmagazine.com/articles/10177-kefir-chia

  19. Maier, J. A., Pickering, G., Giacomoni, E., Cazzaniga, A., & Pellegrino, P. (2020). Headaches and magnesium: Mechanisms, bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy and potential advantage of magnesium pidolate. Nutrients12(9), 2660.

  20. Nielsen, F. H., & Lukaski, H. C. (2006). Update on the relationship between magnesium and exercise. Magnesium research, 19(3), 180–189.

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