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CoQ What???


This blog will discuss the supplement Coenzyme Q10.



So what is Coenzyme Q10

A nutrient that naturally occurs in the body and plays a role in cellular energy. It acts like an antioxidant(a substance like a vitamin that removes potentially damaging particles from the body).


CoQ10 is available in two forms; Ubiquinone derived from CoQ10 and Ubiquinol, which is the reduced form and may be absorbed better than CoQ10. CoQ10 (Ubiquinone) converts to Ubiquinol in the body, and this conversion can cause it to lose some of its efficiency.


Overview


Although the body produces CoQ10 naturally, it is also in Meat, fish, and nuts, vegetable oils also contain CoQ10, but the levels found in foods don't significantly increase the levels in a person's body.


CoQ10 decreases with age and levels tend to be lower in people with chronic conditions such as heart disease, kidney disease, type II diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.


CoQ10 supplements are widely available in chewable tablets, gummies, capsules, liquid, wafers, and IV. People can take 200-1200mg daily, most common doses range around 100-300mg per day.

So which is better? There is mixed data on this and a lot of claims from different manufacturers, (CONSUMER BEWARE). Some studies suggest Ubiquinol may be superior to Ubiquinone in enhancing CoQ10 levels. Other studies dispute the superiority of one versus the other. Some of these studies have been done on humans, others on mice models.


Some Benefits


Cholesterol Benefits: CoQ10 supplementation may decrease total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides and increase HDL-C cholesterol. The most significant benefit seems to be lowering total cholesterol (dosage of 400-500mg daily).


Heart benefits: Supplementation with CoQ10 may be helpful for patients with heart failure and cardiovascular disease. The addition of CoQ10 to statin medications may decrease statin-induced skeletal muscle injury. (Data shows that Statins can reduce CoQ10 levels in the body by as much as 40%).


Blood pressure benefits: COQ10 may reduce systolic blood pressure in people with cardiometabolic syndrome. (Cardiometabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and intra-abdominal obesity.


Energy Benefits: CoQ10 may help relieve mild fatigue symptoms (dosage of around 100-150mg per day). Some evidence suggests that CoQ10 improves physical performance.


Cognitive Benefits: There may be some benefit to CoQ10 supplementation, but there is conflicting data to show if CoQ10 does, in fact, slow cognitive decline, depending on the study. The studies that support improved cognition tend to do so based on the antioxidant effects and blood CoQ10 levels.


Migraine Benefits: CoQ10 may decrease the frequency and duration of migraine headaches. Some data suggest that combining CoQ10, Vitamin B2, and magnesium is more beneficial.


Side Effects


CoQ10 is generally well tolerated. Side effects increase with higher doses, more than 500mg daily. But some people take mega doses of up to 1200mg daily.


The most common side effects include

  • Stomach pain

  • Diarrhea

  • Flatulence

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Insomnia

  • Headaches and dizziness

  • Rash

  • Irritability

Medication Interactions


Before taking any supplement or vitamin, I advise that people talk to their medical doctor about the possible benefits, side effects, and medication interactions.

CoQ10 can interact with some common medications. I have listed some common medications below, but there may be others.

  1. Warfarin (coumadin), CoQ10 may decrease its effectiveness.

  2. Clopidogrel (Plavix) CoQ10 may decrease its effectiveness

  3. CoQ10 may increase the effectiveness of some blood pressure medications. Some include; diltiazem (Cardizem), metoprolol (Lopressor or Toprol), enalapril (Vasotec), and Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat or nitro bid).

  4. Some medications can lower the levels of COQ10 in the body, including cholesterol medications, blood pressure medications, and antidepressants. Some of these include Atorvastatin (Lipitor), Lovastatin (Mevacor), Pravastatin (Pravachol), gemfibrozil (Lopid), Atenolol (Tenormin), Labetalol, Metoprolol, Propranolol (Inderal), Amitriptyline (Elavil), Doxepin (Sinequan) and Imipramine (Tofranil).

I hope you found this blog post on CoQ10 helpful. Please discuss any medication or supplement changes with your doctor. Check out GeriAcademy.com for more posts on aging-related topics.


Citations

  1. Dahri, M., Tarighat-Esfanjani, A., Asghari-Jafarabadi, M., & Hashemilar, M. (2019). Oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with migraine: Effects on clinical features and inflammatory markers. Nutritional neuroscience, 22(9), 607-615.

  2. Di Lorenzo, A., Iannuzzo, G., Parlato, A., Cuomo, G., Testa, C., Coppola, M., ... & Giallauria, F. (2020). Clinical evidence for Q10 coenzyme supplementation in heart failure: From energetics to functional improvement. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(5), 1266.

  3. Fernández-Portero, C., Amián, J. G., de la Bella, R., López-Lluch, G., & Alarcón, D. (2022). Coenzyme Q10 Levels Associated With Cognitive Functioning and Executive Function in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A.

  4. Griffiths, Travis MD; Engdall, Peter MD; Starr, John T. MD; Orme, Lindsay MD. Does coenzyme Q10 lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension? Evidence-Based Practice: December 2021 - Volume 24 - Issue 12 - p 27 doi: 10.1097/EBP.0000000000001222.

  5. Gutierrez-Mariscal, F. M., de la Cruz-Ares, S., Torres-Peña, J. D., Alcalá-Diaz, J. F., Yubero-Serrano, E. M., & López-Miranda, J. (2021). Coenzyme q10 and cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidants, 10(6), 906.

  6. Hargreaves, I., Heaton, R. A., & Mantle, D. (2020). Disorders of Human Coenzyme Q10 Metabolism: An Overview. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(18). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186695.

  7. Jafari, M., Mousavi, S. M., Asgharzadeh, A., & Yazdani, N. (2018). Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of heart failure: A systematic review of systematic reviews. Indian heart journal, 70, S111-S117.

  8. Kloer, H. U., Belardinelli, R., Ruchong, O., & Rosenfeldt, F. (2020). Combining Ubiquinol with a statin may benefit hypercholesterolaemic patients with chronic heart failure. Heart, Lung and Circulation, 29(2), 188-195.

  9. Kubo, H., Yamamoto, Y., & Fujisawa, A. (2022). Orally ingested ubiquinol-10 or ubiquinone-10 reaches the intestinal tract and is absorbed by the small intestine of mice mostly in its original form. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 22-91.

  10. Leelarungrayub, D., Sawattikanon, N., Klaphajone, J., Pothongsunan, P., & Bloomer, R. J. (2010). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation decreases oxidative stress and improves physical performance in young swimmers: A pilot study. The Open Sports Medicine Journal, 4(1).

  11. Mantle D, Dybring A. Bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10: An Overview of the Absorption Process and Subsequent Metabolism. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 May 5;9(5):386. doi: 10.3390/antiox9050386. PMID: 32380795; PMCID: PMC7278738.

  12. Mizuno K, Sasaki AT, Watanabe K, Watanabe Y. Ubiquinol-10 Intake Is Effective in Relieving Mild Fatigue in Healthy Individuals. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1640. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061640.

  13. Mizuno, K., Tanaka, M., Nozaki, S., Mizuma, H., Ataka, S., Tahara, T., ... & Watanabe, Y. (2008). Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue. Nutrition, 24(4), 293-299.

  14. Shetty, R. A., Forster, M. J., & Sumien, N. (2013). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reverses age-related impairments in spatial learning and lowers protein oxidation. Age, 35(5), 1821-1834.

  15. Sue-Ling, C. B., Abel, W. M., & Sue-Ling, K. (2022). Coenzyme Q10 as Adjunctive Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease and Hypertension: A Systematic Review. The Journal of Nutrition.

  16. Vikelis, M., Dermitzakis, E. V., Vlachos, G. S., Soldatos, P., Spingos, K. C., Litsardopoulos, P., ... & Argyriou, A. A. (2020). Open-label prospective experience of supplementation with a fixed combination of magnesium, vitamin B2, feverfew, Andrographis paniculata and coenzyme Q10 for episodic migraine prophylaxis. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(1), 67.

  17. Zhang Y , Liu J , Chen XQ , Oliver Chen CY . Ubiquinol is superior to Ubiquinone to enhance Coenzyme Q10 status in older men. Food Funct. 2018 Nov 14;9(11):5653-5659. doi: 10.1039/c8fo00971f. PMID: 30302465.

  18. Zhao, D., Liang, Y., Dai, S., Hou, S., Liu, Z., Liu, M., ... & Yang, Y. (2022). Dose-Response Effect of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Blood Pressure among Patients with Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE)-Assessed Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Advances in Nutrition, 13(6), 2180-2194.

  19. Zhihao Liu, Zezhong Tian, Dan Zhao, Ying Liang, Suming Dai, Meitong Liu, Shanshan Hou, Xiaoxi Dong, Zhaxinima, Yan Yang, Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on lipid profiles in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2022;, dgac585, https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgac585.


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